I have forever referred trans-women exploring MTF transition to Annie Richards Website: Second Type Woman.
Unfortunately, at various times this site has not been available for various reasons.
Thus, I created this back-up of her website here as a forever resource to the amazing comprehensive information she created.
We all we Annie Richards many thanks for the hard work she put into creating this exceptional content.
Puberty in Adolescents MTF Transgender
Treatment of Young MTF Transsexuals
Female Hormone Therapy MTF Transsexuals
Breast Development in MTF Transsexuals
Breast Augmentation MTF Transsexuals
Surgical Options for MTF Transsexuals
Orchiectomy for MTF Transsexual Women
The Stealthy Transsexual Woman
Transition MTF Transsexual
The Working Transsexual Woman
The Sexual Orientation of Transsexual Women
Marriage and the Transsexual Woman
Lactation and the Transsexual Woman
The Transsexual Mother
Average Body Size MTF Transgender
Male and Female Skeleton Transgender Women
Female Physical Beauty Transgender
Transsexual Female Physical Beauty
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
Treatment of Intersex Infants
The Elodie Gossuin Affair
Transsexual Women and Sex
The Working Transsexual Woman
|A transsexual model on the cover of a slimming magazine - acceptance rather than stealth |
Two things more than anything deter many transsexual women from transitioning - their family (parents, wife, children, partner ...) and their career. Sadly, money does matter, and there is no doubt that the careers and income of many transsexual women suffer badly from the moment they transition. While a few successfully transition in the same job, most either change jobs when they transition, or will do so soon afterwards. Unfortunately, the new job is rarely an improvement or step upwards compared with their old job as a man, and thus income is often reduced at a time when outgoings have often increased greatly (medical bills, cost of a new wardrobe, probably setting up a new home, possibly having to start paying alimony, ...). A bitter reality is that is often necessary to down-grade one's career aspirations after transition - and this must be considered when deciding whether to transition.
When transitioning, three main options exist:
|Seek a new job, probably in your current career area, but do not hide being transgender|
|Seek a new job, probably also in a new career area, and try to hide being transsexual (i.e. go |
Journalist and writer Jan/James Morris
Transitioning in Your Old Job
Some transsexual women bravely continue in their old and perhaps very successful jobs and careers, occasionally in a blaze of publicity - the wonderful British journalist, writer and historian Jan (formerly James) Morris (left) being an early ground breaker.
Although most women who choose this route do so with their eyes wide open, a few transitioning women go down it with their expectations totally wrong. In extreme cases, they seriously seem to seriously think that they can take hormones for a few months, take a couple of weeks off for surgery in Thailand, and then arrive back at the work as a stunning buxom girl who will have her male colleagues lusting after her!
Transsexual women often have to deal with insincere support from other women
The reality for many girls attempting option 1 is that it is rarely successful, too many days' end in a mixture of tears and anger - while work social events where drink loosens tongues are soon avoided rather than sought. A woman's previous male identity is often a nearly insurmountable obstacle for some work colleagues to mentally overcome, no matter how broadminded they consider themselves to be.
Carla (formerly David) Lewis was dismissed from her a job as a barmaid at a Butlin's holiday camp when her employer discovered that she was a pre-operative transsexual.
Transitioning and a New Job
Seeking a new job immediately after transitioning (option 2) offers the huge advantage in that it is far easier to be accepted as a woman by strangers who know that you are transsexual, but have only ever seen you ever dressed as woman and only know you by your female name.
The temptation is to go even further and try to hide that you are transgender (option 3). But this is really really hard to get away with.
Going stealth without a lot of prior preparation and practice means you are likely to be quickly out'ed as sadly VERY few transwomen are totally convincing and passable right from their transition day. One good approach is just before your full-time transition ask your friends and family (my mum was ruthless!) to be totally honest with you about your ability to pass, if they say it is "great" then brutally test and verify it at every en-femme opportunity - shopping, in bar's, while traveling, sports events, meetings or conferences, during a weekend break, etc. - getting any stares, furtive glances or strange looks? A few early bumps can pay big dividends later.
Modelling is a serious career option for many young transwomen - but success can lead to serious worries if stealth.
The Past is Hard to Hide
Even if you are totally "passable" as a woman and have
as many key documents as is possible, applying for a senior position that requires references, background checks, verification of claimed qualifications, etc., makes it nearly impossible to hide one's past.
Jahna Steele (left),
age 46. She was outed after winning the Las Vegas "Showgirl of the Year 1992" title.
There are dozens, if not hundreds, of identity related items that need to tackled in the months around transition - with varying probability of success. For example, in the UK it is possible with some effort to get formal academic qualifications (i.e. ranging from GCSE Certificates to PhD Scroll's) changed over in to a new name, but it can often be impossible to get vocational qualifications and training course certificates changed - sometimes the only solution is to take the course again, or at least re-sit the exam(s). Even if you think you have done a thorough job on the name changes, it is
too easy to be quickly caught out by say: a background check for a security clearance, the need to provide an old P.60 (a UK tax certificate), your old (male) NI Number on a document, a problem with a reference who didn't immediately recall your new name, an enquiry about your pension plan, an unexpected encounter with an old colleague who knew you as a man, etc, etc. However the kind of positions that don't involve a danger of being "outed" are not likely to pay well - and may not met your financial needs. And this is before we consider the issues of discrimination (intentional or unintentional) against transsexuals, and the fact that women are often simply paid less then men in similar jobs.
Even with option 2 (openness about being transgender), there are many factors to consider related to the type of job you are applying to. Some are sexist and it may be illegal for potential employers to consider them, but the fact is that they do. There is no doubt that whether or not you admit to being transgender, the chance of being employed once you get an interview depends upon factors such as:
The Korean transsexual band Lady and ....
Emily De Salvo (formerly Stephano) has transitioned but not yet had SRS. She won a place at the prestigious Tito Schipa Conservatory at age 29, after spending three years stretching her voice from male baritone to female soprano. (Italy)
|Your voice (a clearly female sounding voice is hugely advantageous) |
|Appropriate but attractive dress, hair, make-up|
|Your qualifications and experience|
|Your answers to the interviewer's questions (at last!)|
These factors apply to
women, not just transsexuals, studies have shown that "beautiful" women earn more and marry better than their less attractive sister's. Numerous books and internet websites provide advice for job seekers that is specifically tailored to women.
Many transsexual women, particularly younger women, are very socially stereotyped in the type of job that they want to apply for, these often being traditionally female job such as: secretary, actress, hairdresser, ... For example, one rather old
documents the occupation of 51 transsexual women as being:
For a few girls outside the sex industry, being a transsexual can actually help their career:
... their Thai rivals Venus Flytrap.
Show Business (Actress)
And a slightly more recent
lists the occupations of 32 transsexual women as being:
Office, clerical, etc
"Office ..." presumably includes Secretary, and "Store Proprietor" or "Salesperson" includes "Shop Assistant" in UK parlance. "Show Business (Actress)" probably includes the jobs of Dancer and Show-Girl. A brief survey of the internet also quickly reveals transgender women working as a model, promotional girl, hostess, companion, nurse, singer, teacher, politician, engineer, software developer, pilot and soldier.
Air France steward Bruno Colliaux (inset) became at age 35 year, air hostess
We should also not forget the kudos still associated with the often less than glamorous job of Air Hostess (aka Cabin Crew and other politically correct titles these days). For example, to mark her 'graduation' after SRS, one British 20-something transsexual applied in 1994 with unexpected success for a position as female cabin crew with a Middle Eastern airline. Intended just as a bit of fun, after passing her wings course she was always about to resign but eventually stayed 3 years, doing everything from cleaning sick in the toilets to lap dancing an Emir on his private yacht.
In the late 1990's the Dutch airline KLM admitted that it employs transsexual women as female Flight Attendants, but said that it couldn't give the exact number as it doesn't identify the condition in its staff records. However KLM is no longer unusual, for example in 2001 Air France reluctantly
to one its stewards becoming an air hostess after two years on hormones and SRS, a test found that she was perceived as a woman by passengers. Also, British Airways has made it quite clear that it won't discriminate against suitable and qualified job applicants because of their current or former sex or sexuality, and it also has an agreed policy that transsexuals may remain in their job during their transition and surgery - indeed any discrimination may be illegal in the UK.
Transgender flight attendant Phuntakarn Sringern onboard a Thai PC Air flight.
In 2011, Thailand based airline PC Air gained extensive press coverage when it announced that it had recruited four male-to-female transsexuals as cabin crew - with opinion highly split as to whether this was exploitation or a positive development for transgender equality. Unsurprisingly the new employees were very positive; Phuntakarn Sringern saying “I like a job where I can show my ability and I love to wear beautiful suits”.
Leslie Townsend (above) managed to make a living as a model, while Teri Toye became a phenomenon in 1980's New York.
Hilda transitioned at age 20. Now 24 she works six days a week at a Hair Salon, but has to save for her breast augmentation by 'dating' paying men.
The first part of this article seems to show that transwomen are very likely to choose feminine image jobs, indeed it's perhaps more likely than for genetic women. Unsurprisingly secretarial and other office jobs top the list in the two surveys, being the occupation of about 19% of the participants, but the number of hairdressers and beauticians is also high at 13%.
Andrea Blackburn was sacked when her employer discovered that she had had a sex-change.
"Nurse" comes surprisingly low in the ranking (at most 4% of participants), but there are big obstacles to this career for a transgender women, unless it was already begun as a man. In the UK at least, Registered Nurses undertake long and expensive professional training, and in practice state (i.e. NHS) supported hospitals and universities prefer trainee nurses to start straight from school or college, i.e. age 17-19. There is no formal upper age limit on entry, but in practice 29 seems to the absolute limit - which is less than the typical age (30 something) of a British transsexual women at the time of her transition.
My personal impression is that the surveys significantly underestimate the size of the categories "Housewife" and "Teacher" (or child minder), and that the extent of participation in the sex trade industry and prostitution is not honestly represented.
The rather old but still interesting book "Man & Woman - Boy & Girl" by John Money & Anke A. Ehrhardt (1972), shows a similar employment picture for transsexual women to that given above. For reasons of her own, Janice Raymond in her notorious book the "The Transsexual Empire" also points out, and indeed emphasizes, the fact that many transsexual women want to be house wives and not work, and those do work had in one study (by Kando) "stereotypical feminine jobs: secretaries (three), waitress (one), dancers (four), hairdressers or beauticians (two), actresses (two), university-affiliated research scientist (one)."
It thus seems that many transwomen are working in - and many more are actively seeking - jobs that largely rely on youth and physical beauty for initial success: model, show-girl, actress, ... even prostitute. For every transsexual woman that manages to make a viable living as say a photographic model, far many more will be disappointed. The reality is that most transsexual women are at a disadvantage when competing for these jobs with often younger and prettier and just as determined to succeed genetic "girl-girls".
However it easy to overemphasize the situation in the manner of Ms Raymond. It is perhaps essential to point out that many transwomen are very realistic about their career and work prospects, and also that youngest and thus most passable 'transgirls' seem to follow career paths as diverse as 'XY' CIS-girls.
Brazilian transwoman Patricia Araujo has moved from being a shemale porn star to a top fashion model.
Modeling is a common career choice for young transgender girls - it's glamorous, sexy, apparently fun, and can pay well. They are also often successful as models as they usually have two significant physical advantages compared to genetic girls - greater height and longer legs. Breast implants, plastic surgery and make-up can deal with most other physical disadvantages. As for large feet and hands - most supermodel's wear at least a a size 7 shoe!
Claudia Charriez in America's Next Top Model
Transgender models try to live in stealth, but this is very hard to achieve, particularly if they start to become famous. From the late 1960's through to the early 2000's a stream of transsexual models have been out'ed, including:
, Lauren Foster, Daniella Love, Larissa Summers,
, Claudia Charriez and Alicia Liu.
Angela Ponce is well known as being transgender in Spain, but interestingly there is no hint of that in these American magazines.
For many, their career as a female model was generally irredeemably compromised, and they joined an acknowledged "sex change" celebrities such as
and Amanda LePore. Claudia Charriez was perhaps was the last to suffer this fate when in 2006 she disqualified from the reality TV contest America's Next Top Model at the semi-final stage when the producer's discovered that she was "not born biologically female". The resulting negative publicity was undoubtedly a factor that influenced the producers decision to allow transgender woman Isis King to participate in the 2008 series. However when Alicia Liu was out'ed in 2010 her modeling career continued, she said seven months later: "To go public with my sex change was more of a help for me than hindrance, and it had not affected my life".
This 2015 Louis Vuitton photo shoot received huge press coverage because it featured Jaden Smith (far right, son of Will and Jada Smith) in a skirt. There was almost no mention that the other three models were MTF transgender.
An important development in the early 2010's has been the emergence of openly transsexual models, and the acceptance of these by fashion houses and photographers. Agencies such as Models UK suggest that "designers are no longer required to hire female models for womenswear and male models for menswear as the definition of gender is being challenged. ... It is an exciting time where gender roles are challenged and freedom is welcomed!". According to Lazaro Hernandez of
: “The distinction between man and woman is disappearing, aesthetically at least. This is a big facet of our culture right now.”
The early 2010's has seen an explosion of highly rated models - led by Lea T and
-whose XY genes has not obviously hampered their modeling career. Adriana Mazzarini, Valentijn de Hingh, Stefania Visconti,
, Stav Strashko and Michalina Manios are other examples in Europe. Indeed a flood of androgynous male models from Eastern to Western Europe has even led to complaints from local female models that they are being undercut on rates and can't compete on physical characteristics such as height and leg length.
(left) was born in Brazil in 1981 as Leandro Cerezo.
She transitioned at age 25 after being told by a friend: "We treat you like a girl, and everybody treats you like a girl. Maybe you should have to go to a doctor or something because we see you like a girlfriend. We don't see you like a guy". Lea T says she was devastated to hear this: "At that point I cried a lot. For three days I was closed in my house, but that was the point I made this decision."
In 2010 she became known as the 'Muse of Givenchy' when she featured in their photo shoots. She had sex reassignment surgery in March 2011, and after photo shoots in
Vogue Paris, Hercules Magazine, Interview Magazine, Cover Magazine
was rated as a Top 50 female model by the influential
19 year old Valentina Sampaio on the cover (above) of ELLE Brazil’s November 2016 issue, and Vogue France's March 2017 issue (below)
Looking outside Europe, just a small sample of other transsexual models who have enjoyed some success in early 2010's includes: Hari Nef, Patrícia Araújo, Fabiana Oliveira Melo, Carmen Carrera, Ana Carolina Marra, Non Poy, Geena Rocero, Kayoh Sato, Florencia de la Vega, Carol Marra, Valentina Sampaio and Liu Shi Han.
Many female models take some liberties with important facts such as their age. Transgender models often take this a stage further.
is perhaps the best case of where it is impossible to reconcile all the claims and records.
Transgender Supermodel -
became by far the most famous transsexual model in the world when in July 2014, she announced that she had a sex change, and had changed her name to Andreja. Three years earlier, she - still physically a he - had been ranked no. 98 in FHM magazine's '100 Sexiest Women in the World 2011'.
Andreja and Lea T laid the ground for meteoric rise in 2016 of transgender model Valentina Sampaio. Five years younger than both, by early 2017 Valentina already had a collection of Elle and Vogue front covers that any super-model would be proud of.
Six top transgender models. From left to right:
Lea T, Hari Nef, Andreja Pejic, Geena Rocero, Valentina Sampaio, Branca Bacci-Brunelli,
Moving in to acting is logical follow on to modeling. Recent years have seen a huge increase in the number of
appearing in films and television. Unfortunately many of the best MTF roles have been played by genetically female actresses, for example: Julie Hesmondhalgh played transgendered Hayley Cropper for many years in the British television soap opera,
; Chloë Sevigny stared as a pre-operative transgender woman, Mia, in the TV series
Hit & Miss
; Raquel Welch got the lead role in the very disappointing film
in the American television
; Rebecca Romijn played Alexis Meade in Ugly Betty; and
in the TV film
One rare exception is male actor Eddie Redmayne who unexpectedly appeared in the lead role in the film The Danish Girl - the story of the world's first post-SRS transsexual,
. Actress Nichole Kidman was previously
to have the lead role.
age 29. She was born in 1982, transitioned when 17 and had SRS the following year.
Shemale porn star Barbie Woods (inset - just before her transition). Her family have generally offered their support and she plans to have SRS eventually.
Model, actress and politician
(born Mohand Ourbih) transitioned when she moved to Paris, age 18 and had SRS soon after. She has never hidden the fact that she is a transwoman. (Algeria/France)
Transwomen who have achieved some success as an actress include: Italian born
in films such as Belle al Bar (1994);
in several roles - most notably as the transwoman Carmelita in the television series
Dirty Sexy Money
in films such as Thelma; Aleksa Lundberg in several Swedish television series; whilst Spanish director Pedro Almadovar has frequently used transsexual actresses in his films, including
and Antonia San Juan - who emerged to fame thanks to her role as Agrado in Todo sobre mi madre. (All About my Mother).
Singing and Musicians
Singing has been an unexpectedly successful path for many transsexual women. Success include:
, Dana International (Israeli winner of the Eurovision Song Contest in 1998), Kim Petras,
, Harisu, Foxy Lady, Turkish singer Bulent Ersoy, and Jayne County - formerly known as Wayne County.
The Sex Trade
In confidential circumstances an extraordinary number of transsexual women admit to having sex with a man in order to gain something in return - prostitute, escort, companion, mistress, casting couch, a favor paid for 'in kind', etc. Claims that one third of all TS girls are, or have been, prostitutes are difficult to refute. However the percentage of cis-women who have taken money for sex - including one-off events such as a drunken student offered a few hundred pounds/ dollars/ euros by an admirers in a night club - may be quite high. One American study published in 2007 estimated 17% - so the difference may not be huge.
Many young pre-SRS transwomen venture in to the sex trade. The financial rewards can be high, but so are the risks.
The motive for going in to the sex trade is usually financial. For many pre-operative woman advertising themselves online, in the small ads or on the streets becomes a reluctant but very lucrative option - particularly at a time when their normal day-time career maybe faltering and medical costs and other outgoings are soaring. It also allows savings to be quickly accumulated for expensive feminization surgery - typically breast augmentation, facial feminization and eventually expensive sex re-assignment surgery. Because of the financial attractions of the trade, and the potential loss of earnings after SRS, surgery is often deferred. Indeed, in Europe it is uncertain how many of the thousands of "shemales" from Africa and South America that ply this trade can really be regarded as transsexual, many probably revert to leading a "gay" but clearly male life-style as age catches up them.
An analysis of sex trade workers by the New Zealand police force. The 30% transgender for 'Street Workers' is extraordinary, it probably includes a large influx of 'shemales' from other parts of Asia.
'Ella' became a high class female prostitute after having SRS, her clients are unaware of her past.
Whilst there's much heated
about the topic, the reality is that there are many instances of non-transsexual gay men living as a pre-SRS 'shemale', often working in the sex trade. Some such men eventually decide to go all-the-way and have SRS (often but not always eventually regretted), while others stop taking female hormones when they reach a certain age, get any breast implants removed and transition back to living as a man. A further uncomfortable reality for academics is that some post-SRS transsexual women actively seek and enjoy a life as a female prostitute, it combines sexual pleasure as a woman with financial reward.
In 1998-2000 the BBC real-life documentary Paddington Green featured post-SRS transsexual
(left) who was working the streets as a female prostitute. The final series closed with her trying to move on into a career as a musician.
37-year old transsexual Mianne Bagger gained her card for the Ladies European Golf Tour in November 2004.
Interestingly one avenue of employment that until now been effectively closed to transsexual women is professional
. Transsexual women are certainly not competitive in men's events, but until recently have been barred from women's sports due to sex tests. However, in May 2004 the International Olympic Committee decided to allow transsexuals to compete in their re-assigned sex, and governing sports bodies around the world have since been busy changing their rules to conform to this. There is no doubt that some Olympic events (e.g. running, javelin, pole vault, martial arts, etc.) and many professional or semi-professional women's sports such as tennis, golf, football (soccer), basketball, bowling, running et al now face a gradual influx of top ranking women who are transsexual, although their transsexuality may not be public. The potential for an amateur sportsman who has a sex change operation while still in her 20's (or later), to then make a good living as a top ranked professional sportswoman has been proven by the examples of Renee Richards and, more recently, Mianne Bagger.
There are also potential developments in terms of the beauty pageant circuit, which can briefly offer a young girl a living and form the platform for her later move in to acting, promotion work, PR, and other [female orientated] careers where glamour is required and a title such as "Miss Delux Soap 2003" on the CV can help considerably. Currently most beauty pageants and contests bar transsexual women by vaguely (perhaps deliberately vaguely) requiring that their entrants are "natural born women", or something similar, and the entrants signature on the entry form confirms that they are such. However the ever increasing recognition of transsexual women as legally women, combined with the fact that few major competitions still disbar contestants from having cosmetic surgery as enforcement had proved to be impossible, makes a high profile challenge inevitable if transsexual women continue to effectively be excluded by the organizers from the likes of Miss Universe and Miss World. Rumours that Miss France 2001,
was a transsexual were totally unfounded, but the odds that one day soon the tall and leggy winner of a major beauty pageant will be a transsexual woman are very high - if it hasn't already quietly happened.
I was working as a fairly well paid professional when in late 2000 I made the "definitely this time" decision to transition. I sent my CV with my forename name changed to "Annie" to several job agencies. Just a few days later I was contacted by a London based bank and arranged to meet a representative in connection with a short-term contract. The interview was awful - I was terribly nervous and having to tell him that I was a transsexual woman nearly had me in tears with stress and worry, but I got the job! I started just after New Year 2001, and for the first time I was living, working and socialising as a woman 24 hours as a day. It was a start, but my contract was for only three months and slightly unexpectedly it was not renewed. In early April I took a substantial pay cut and joined a computer company in Ireland as an Account Administrator, but unfortunately business was badly hit by the tragic events of 11th September and in November I was made redundant. At both these organisations my CV, qualifications and references had clearly revealed my background and despite promises that "aspects" would remain confidential, perhaps inevitably it soon became widely known that I was a transsexual. This caused a few problems, particularly in the early days at the bank when I was still far from confident as Annie, but it also ensured that I was well known!
Shemale porn star Barbie Woods (inset - just before her transition). Her family have generally offered their support and she plans to have SRS eventually.
In mid-December 2001, my boyfriend suggested that I move in with him and I agreed - even though it meant yet another move. I then had a short and disastrous period as a Teacher's Assistant at a small Nursery School. It seemed a good idea at the time as I felt that I wanted to work with children, but the timing was poor due to laser treatment that I was having to prevent beard growth. The other staff quickly realized that I was a transsexual and reacted rather badly to that, upsetting me a lot. In February I left, after just 6 weeks.
Unemployed yet again, I completely revamped my CV, cutting it down and removing from it details and references that would bring out my former male past, and instead emphasizing employment by several companies which handily no longer existed, and post-transition references that I knew to be safe. Unfortunately this also reduced my "value" on the job market and it took several months of job hunting before I was finally offered a reasonably paying (although less than a third of what I had been earning only a year before) administrative position at a local college. I started work in May 2002 and for the first time had no problems integrating in to the nearly all female office environment - my ability to "pass" had vastly improved compared with when I first transitioned, perhaps helped by a recent orchidectomy. But unfortunately my boyfriend was told by his company that he would be relocated in early 2003, and in December I resigned from my new job and moved yet again. A few months later I began a part-time job as a Sales Assistant at a shop. Over the next five years I slowly worked myself up to Assistant Store Manager.
Looking back, there is no doubt that without the financial support of my boyfriend (now husband), my standard of living would have declined enormously after my transition.
UK Vocational Qualifications
In the UK, transwomen intending to apply for a job as a secretary, hairdresser, beautician, etc., usually need to hold a relevant qualification. For example, an equivalent to at least the Level 1 NVQ in "Beauty Therapy" or "Hairdressing" is required by many salons for even a trainee or junior position. Similarly, when applying for a secretary position, RSA Stage 1 qualification(s) are important, although if acquiring these is too demanding, just being able to show a "Using Microsoft Word" certificate obtained after a few weeks at night school may still be decisive in obtaining a job.
Many Colleges of Further Education, Adult Education Centres, and commercially run education institutes offer part-time (including night-school), full-time or intensive "fast-track" courses in a huge variety of subjects which lead to recognized exams and qualifications
In an ideal world, try to start obtaining these qualifications as a woman
you transition, if you are worried about being "outed" - well keep telling yourself that it's good experience that will pay dividends when you do transition full-time! (P.S. - this is all a case of do so as I say, not do as I did!)
Copyright (c) 2012, Annie Richards
Last updated: 13 November, 2012